UNESCO launched in 2012 the World Atlas of Gender Equality in Education, the report presents the pathways in education of girls and boys in aspects such as access, participation and progression in pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary education. The data, from the UNESCO Institute of Statistics, is presented disaggregated by sex, giving special emphasis on gender indicators to illustrate disparities and changes observed since 1970. Some other important factors taken in consideration are: national wealth, geographic location, investment in education, and fields of study.
OECD (2011), Against the Odds: Disadvantage Students Who Succeed in School, OECD Publications.
Portugal is one of the OECD countries that has a higher proportion of resilient students, although their proficiency levels tend to be low.