“The social structure of european inequality: a multidimensional perspective”, Rosário Mauritti, Susana da Cruz Martins, Nuno Nunes, Ana Lúcia Romão, António Firmino da Costa
Abstract: The aim of this article is to present some contributions to the understanding of social inequality in Europe today. We analyse the distributional inequalities of economic and educational resources as well as the categorical inequalities between nation states and between social classes. The source of the empirical data was the European Social Survey 2012. We were able to calculate European income deciles, build a matrix of class-country segments, and analyse the intersections of this structural matrix with the distributions of income and schooling. The results reveal high degrees of distributional inequality in Europe. They also show the structural configurations assumed in Europe by the intersection of distributive and categorical inequalities.
Consultar artigo: Mauritti, Rosário, Susana da Cruz Martins, Nuno Nunes, Ana Lúcia Romão, António Firmino da Costa (2016), “The social structure of european inequality: a multidimensional perspective”, in Sociologia Problemas e Práticas, Nº 81, pp. 75-93. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7458/SPP2016818798
Abstract: There is a widespread perception that income inequalities have grown across the rich world in recent decades. This is not the case. In many countries inequalities have been stable and in a few they have fallen. Different measures of inequality result in different trends being observed.Here the income share of the best-off 1% is tracked for some 11 countries out of the world’s richest 26 large nation states to illustrate that far from it being normal to see the rich always taking more, for much of the last century in almost all these countries it was normal for the income share of the rich to be falling, and in some their share remains low while in a few it has continued to fall. It is only in countries such as the USA, UK and Canada that the richest 1% are currently again taking historically high shares of national income, and where their take appears to have been rising in the last decade.
Abstract: What does it means to be wealthy? Do possessors of significant wealth act in distinct ways that justify considering them a class, an elite or a status group? I explore the implications of various definitions of the wealthy. I review available data for a range of historical societies and then examine if the 1990’s explosion of wealth in the United States created a society with a larger stratum of the wealthy than in previous societies. I conclude by identifying a future research agenda that seeks to relate the relative and changing proportions of the wealthy in various societies to other, often nonquantitative evidence of shared occupational and leisure pursuits, family forms and political action
“Robin Hood versus Piggy Bank: Income redistribution in Portugal 2006-10”, de Carlos Farinha Rodrigues e Isabel Andrade
Summary: The redistributive effect of the Portuguese welfare state through pensions, benefits and taxes is investigated in detail over the 2006-10 period using disposable income as benchmark. All social and fiscal policy instruments analysed contribute significantly to the reduction in inequality and poverty, with benefits other than pensions being the most cost-efficient. However, the impact of the economic crisis and austerity policies implemented from 2010 has reversed the previous trends and affected negatively the efficacy and efficiency of all instruments.
“Class and social capital in europe. A transnational analysis of the European Social Survey”, de Renato Miguel do Carmo e Nuno Nunes
Abstract: This paper seeks to understand the way in which social capital resources are incorporated, appropriated and distributed by different social classes in Europe. Its main goal is to produce a conceptual framework by linking the concepts of social capital with the different theoretical assessments made by the sociology of social classes. We use multivariate analysis to work a set of quantitative indicators from the European Social Survey 2008 in order to assess the relationship between these concepts. Our methodological approach combines transnational levels, i.e., it is not an international comparison between European countries but an analysis of individual people and their belonging to social classes.